Regulations and Documents

The most recent industry-related regulations and publications

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  • why we use antibiotics on animals
    Modelling the impact of curtailing antibiotic usage in food animals on antibiotic resistance in humans
    May 10, 2017

    There is a lack of robust, quantitative evidence to either support or contradict the suggestion that reducing the volume of antibiotics consumed by food animals could have public health benefits.

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    Effects of antimicrobial use in agricultural animals on drug-resistant foodborne salmonellosis in humans: A systematic literature review
    May 10, 2017

    A systematic review of published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant meat or dairy-borne non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans.

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    Effect of Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Animals on Drug-resistant Foodborne Campylobacteriosis in Humans: A Systematic Literature Review
    October 11, 2016

    A systematic review of published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans.

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    Stakeholder position paper: epidemiological perspectives on antibiotic use in animals.
    November 21, 2015

    Epidemiologists studying antimicrobial resistance are often interested in analyzing the association between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in animals, and on the impact of antimicrobial use in animals on the occurrence of resistance in bacteria affecting human populations.

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    Public health consequences of macrolide use in food animals: a deterministic risk assessment.
    November 21, 2015

    The potential impact on human health from antibiotic-resistant bacteria selected by use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in many reports and recommended actions.

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    Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chickens.
    November 21, 2015

    The model shows that the theoretical statistical human health benefits of a VM ban range from zero to less than one statistical life saved in both Australia and the United States over the next five years and are rapidly decreasing. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is robust to key data gaps and uncertainties, e.g., about the extent of resistance transfer from chickens to people.

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    Overcoming Gaps in Research & Development on Antimicrobial Drug Resistance
    November 21, 2015

    The purpose of the meeting was to address the current gaps in innovation and research and development (R&D) related to antimicrobial resistance, to raise engagement and awareness about the Global Action Plan and to foster the development of new collaborative and financial tools which can assist to overcome the related existent obstacles.

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    Drug Companies Will Limit Antibiotics in Food Animals
    November 12, 2015

    The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) received positive written commitments from 25 of 26 animal drug companies in response to its request that they phase out the use of antibiotics to promote growth in animals raised for food production, the agency announced this week.

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    National Pork Board Defines Antibiotic Stewardship Plan
    November 12, 2015

    The National Pork Board has announced a stewardship plan to guide and support the responsible use of antibiotics for the U.S. pork industry.

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    National Pork Board
    November 12, 2015

    The National Pork Board administers the pork checkoff and works with pork producers and key stakeholders focused on building a bright future for the pork industry through research, promotion and education.

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    Guidelines Issued on Antibiotic Use to Farm Animals
    November 12, 2015

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Tuesday issued a set of guidelines for veterinarians who will, as of next year, be responsible for prescribing certain antibiotics for animals destined for the dinner plate – marking a key step in ending the practice of distributing those drugs over the counter.

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    American Sheep Industry Association Most Animal Antibiotics Used for Treating, Preventing Disease
    November 12, 2015

    The White Paper from the National Institute for Animal Agriculture’s 2012 Antibiotics Conference in Columbus, Ohio.

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    Dairy Animal Care Quality Assurance
    November 12, 2015

    The purpose of this program is to enhance and demonstrate quality animal care practices, which assure food safety, quality and value as well as enhance consumer confidence in the milk and beef products that are harvested from cattle on America’s dairy farms.

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    Feed Additives and Medications
    November 12, 2015
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    Beef Quality Assurance
    November 12, 2015

    Beef Quality Assurance is a national program that provides guidelines for beef cattle production.

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    American Association of Bovine Practitioners
    November 12, 2015

    The American Association of Bovine Practitioners is an international association of veterinarians serving society as leaders in cattle health, welfare and productivity.

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    Coalition for Animal Health Letter to the White House
    November 12, 2015
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    American Association of Avian Pathologists
    November 12, 2015

    The AAAP promotes scientific knowledge to enhance the health, well-being, and productivity of poultry to provide safe and abundant food for the world.

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    Pork Cares
    November 12, 2015

    Farmers have led industrywide efforts to achieve tremendous improvements in all areas of modern pig farming.

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    Pork Quality Assurance Plus Certification
    November 12, 2015

    PQA Plus is a producer-driven program they can use to ensure U.S. pork products are of the highest quality and safe, and animals raised for food are cared for in a way ensuring their well-being.

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    Changes to On-Farm Antibiotic Use Take Center Stage
    November 12, 2015

    The National Pork Board, led by its producer leaders, has been taking steps to help address all of these challenges and the changes related to on-farm antibiotic use.

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    Antibiotic Changes: 18 months and counting
    November 12, 2015

    By the end of 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will implement a new policy aimed at on-farm use of antibiotics in food-animal production.

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    Defining the Pork Industry Vision of Antibiotic Stewardship
    November 12, 2015

    Maintaining the health of pigs is a top priority of the U.S. pork industry and effective antibiotics are a critical tool in raising pigs.

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    National Pork Board Policy on Antibiotic Use in Pork Production
    November 12, 2015

    On behalf of America’s pig farmers, the National Pork Board has created the following values that reflect farmers’ commitment to using antibiotics responsibly on the farm.

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    Basic Guidelines of Judicious Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Pork Production
    November 12, 2015

    When a condition exists that threatens or impairs pig health and wellbeing, it is essential that an accurate clinical diagnosis be obtained.

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    Over 150 Animal and Health Stakeholders Join White House Effort to Combat Antibiotic Resistance
    November 12, 2015

    As part of the event, more than 150 food companies, retailers, and human and animal health stakeholders will highlight commitments to implement changes over the next five years to slow the emergence of resistant bacteria and prevent the spread of resistant infections.

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    FDA Issues VFD Final Rule
    November 12, 2015

    The VFD final rule outlines the process for authorizing use of VFD drugs (animal drugs intended for use in or on animal feed that require the supervision of a licensed veterinarian) and provides veterinarians in all states with a framework for authorizing the use of medically important antimicrobials in feed when needed for specific animal health purposes.

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    Animal Antibiotics: Keeping Animals Healthy and Our Food Safe
    November 12, 2015

    To keep animals healthy, veterinarians and farmers work together to create flock and herd health management programs to prevent diseases before they develop and spread.

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    Animal Health Institute
    November 12, 2015

    The Animal Health Institute (AHI) represents companies with an interest in veterinary health. Our members develop and produce the medicines that help our pets live longer, healthier lives and contribute to safe food by keeping food animals healthy.

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    Review lends perspective to recent scientific findings on virginiamycin, antibiotic resistance debate.
    November 12, 2015

    The use of virginiamycin in food animal production is of benefit to animal production in terms of welfare, disease control and links to adverse human health consequences appear to lack solid scientific support.

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    Food Supply Veterinary Medicine – Resources
    November 12, 2015

    Veterinarians and veterinary medical students can learn more about and search for careers in rural and food supply veterinary medicine through the following resources.

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    American Veterinary Medical Association
    November 12, 2015

    The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), established in 1863, is a not-for-profit association representing more than 86,500 veterinarians working in private and corporate practice, government, industry, academia, and uniformed services.

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    FDA Releases 2012 NARMS Retail Meat Annual Report, 2013 Preliminary Data; Some Encouraging Early Trends Seen
    November 12, 2015

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has released two reports that measure antimicrobial resistance in certain bacteria isolated from raw meat and poultry collected through the NARMS.

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    Veterinary Feed Directive Requirements for Veterinarians – For Veterinary Students
    November 12, 2015

    This written statement authorizes the client (the owner of the animal or animals or other caretaker) to obtain and use animal feed bearing or containing a VFD drug or combination VFD drug to treat the client’s animals only in accordance with the conditions for use approved, conditionally approved, or indexed by the FDA. A VFD is also referred to as a VFD order.

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    Veterinary Feed Directive Requirements for Veterinarians
    November 12, 2015

    This written statement authorizes the client (the owner of the animal or animals or other caretaker) to obtain and use animal feed bearing or containing a VFD drug or combination VFD drug to treat the client’s animals only in accordance with the conditions for use approved, conditionally approved, or indexed by the FDA. A VFD is also referred to as a VFD order.

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    Veterinary Feed Directive Requirements for Distributors
    November 12, 2015

    Under VFD regulation, a “distributor” means any person who distributes a medicated feed containing a VFD drug to another person.

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    Veterinary Feed Directive Producer Requirements
    November 12, 2015

    A VFD feed can only be used under the professional supervision of a licensed veterinarian.

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    FDA Veterinary Feed Directive
    November 12, 2015

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended its animal drug regulations regarding veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs.

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    Veterinary Feed Directive Regulation Questions and Answers
    November 12, 2015

    This draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the current thinking of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) on this topic.

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    FDA The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS)
    November 12, 2015

    NARMS is a collaborative project of state and local public health departments, the FDA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

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    FDA Questions and Answers: Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals.
    November 12, 2015

    FDA’s annual summary reports now include additional data tables on the importance of each drug class in human medicine, the approved routes of administration for these antimicrobials, whether these antimicrobials are available over-the-counter or require veterinary oversight, and whether the antimicrobial drug products are approved for therapeutic purposes, or for production purposes or both therapeutic and production purposes.

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    New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered in or on Medicated Feed or Drinking Water of Food-Producing Animals: Recommendations for Drug Sponsors for Voluntarily Aligning Product Use Conditions with GFI #209
    November 12, 2015

    This guidance is intended for sponsors of approved applications for new animal drugs and new animal drug combination products containing medically important antimicrobial new animal drugs for use in or on medicated feed or water of food-producing animals.

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    The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals
    November 12, 2015

    Antimicrobial drugs have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine for more than 50 years, with tremendous benefits to both human and animal health. The development of resistance to this important class of drugs, and the resulting loss of their effectiveness as antimicrobial therapies, poses a serious public health threat.

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    British Medical Journal. Magee, J.T., E.L. Pritchard, K.A. Fitzgerald, F.D.J. Dunstan and A.J. Howard, 1999.
    November 12, 2015

    Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8.

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    Oxford Journals. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Bywater, R.J. and M.W. Casewell, 2000.
    November 12, 2015

    An assessment of the impact of antibiotic resistance in different bacterial species and of contribution of animal sources to resistance in human infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 46: 1052

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    Infographic – Antimicrobial Resistance – Global Report on surveillance 2014
    November 12, 2015

    WHO’s first global report on antimicrobial resistance, with a focus on antibiotic resistance, reveals that it is no longer a prediction for the future.

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    Fact Sheet on Antimicrobial resistance
    November 12, 2015

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi.

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    Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014
    November 12, 2015

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi.

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    WHO’s first global report on antibiotic resistance reveals serious, worldwide threat to public health
    November 12, 2015

    New WHO report provides the most comprehensive picture of antibiotic resistance to date, with data from 114 countries.

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    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance
    November 12, 2015

    For the past 70 years, antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases. Over time, however, many infectious organisms have adapted to the drugs designed to kill them, making the products less effective.

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    About Antimicrobial Resistance
    November 12, 2015

    Antibiotic / Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of microbes to resist the effects of drugs – that is, the germs are not killed, and their growth is not stopped.

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    Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work
    November 12, 2015

    Since their discovery in the 1920s, antibiotics have transformed our ability to treat infections. As antibiotic resistance increases, these lifesaving drugs do not work as well as they once did, and successfully treating common infections becomes more difficult

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    One Health – What is One Health?
    November 12, 2015

    One Health is the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment.

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    FDA Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance
    November 12, 2015

    Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most pressing public health problems. The smart use of antibiotics is the key to controlling the spread of resistance.

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    Studies to Evaluate the Safety of Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Human Food: General Approach to Establish a Microbiological ADI
    November 12, 2015

    An issue that needs to be addressed for veterinary antimicrobial drugs is the safety of their residues on the human intestinal flora.

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    Poultry Science. Russell, S.M., 2003. The effect of airsacculitis on bird weights, uniformity, fecal contamination, processing errors and populations of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli.
    November 12, 2015
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    Veterinary Microbiology. Thakur, S., D.A. Tadesse, M. Morrow and W.A. Grebeyes, 2007. Occurrence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella in antimicrobial-free (ABF) swine production systems.
    November 12, 2015
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    Journal of Food Protection.
    November 12, 2015

    Gebreyes, W.A., S. Thakur and W.F.M. Morrow., 2006.  Comparison of prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and occurrence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella in antimicrobial-free and conventional pig production.

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    Letters in Applied Microbiology.
    November 12, 2015

    Heuer, K. Pedersen, J.S. Andersen and M. Madsen, 2001.  Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks.

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    Association between ceftiofur use and isolation of Escherina coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone from fecal samples of dairy cows.
    November 12, 2015

    To estimate the association between ceftiofur use and the isolation of Escherichia coli with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility from fecal samples of dairy cow populations.

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    Effects of therapeutic ceftiofur administration to dairy cattle on Escherichia coli dynamics in the intestinal tract.
    November 12, 2015

    The goal of this study was to follow ceftiofur-treated and untreated cattle in a normally functioning dairy to examine enteric Escherichia coli for changes in antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic diversity.

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    Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance FAQ
    November 12, 2015

    Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance are hot issues, and there’s a lot of confusion and misinformation. With these FAQs, we hope to clear up some of the confusion and provide science-based information.

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    Evaluating the Safety of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs with Regard to Their Microbiological Effect on Bacteria of Human Health Concern.
    November 12, 2015

    This document discusses a recommended approach for assessing the safety of antimicrobial new animal drugs with regard to their microbiological effects on bacteria of human health concern.

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